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In this section, we have leaflets for the Pain Management department. Please only read the materials on the advice of your clinician.

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Inpatient Pain Service



Entonox is a gas that you may be offered to help you manage your pain, during some treatments (e.g. changing a dressing, putting on a plaster cast, etc.).

It consists of 50% Oxygen and 50% Nitrous Oxide. Nitrous Oxide is sometimes used for anaesthetics but in this combination, it works as a short acting pain relief.

Entonox is sometimes called 'Gas and Air' and is most commonly used by women during labour.


Epidural Haematoma Advice

Serious complications from epidural analgesia are rare (1 in 10,000). Because the epidural space is close to the spinal cord, a collection of fluid such as pus, or a blood clot, can cause pressure on the spinal cord. In the unlikely event that there is pressure on the spinal cord, it is crucial to diagnose and treat this as soon as possible. This must be done by expert hospital doctors to prevent delays in treatment and long-lasting damage. This leaflet tells you what to look for and what action to take if you think that you have a problem following the removal of your epidural.


Oral Ketamine for Pain Relief

Ketamine is an anaesthetic medication, which in small doses can be used to help control pain that has not responded well to standard treatment. It is particularly effective in pain caused by nerve damage and reduced blood supply. It is also effective in patients who have been taking opioids long term in the community. We use Ketamine in a syrup form that you take by mouth.



Chronic Pain



Patient Resources

Surrey iMSK Leaflets:


British Pain Society Leaflets:


Faculty of Pain Medicine (RCOA) Leaflets:


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