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Link to the NHS Painkillers, ibuprofen website

NHS: Painkillers, ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a painkiller, which is available over-the-counter, without a prescription.

It is one of a group of painkillers called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and can be used to:

  • ease mild to moderate pain – such as toothache, migraines and period pain
  • control a fever (high temperature, also known as pyrexia) – for example, when someone has the flu (influenza)
  • ease pain and inflammation (redness and swelling) caused by rheumatic diseases (conditions that affect the joints) and musculoskeletal disorders (conditions that affect the bones and muscles) – such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • ease pain and swelling caused by sprains and strains, such as sports injuries
Link to the NHS Painkillers, paracetamol website

NHS: Painkillers, paracetamol

Paracetamol is a painkilling (analgesic) medicine available over-the-counter without a prescription.

Paracetamol can be used to:

  • ease mild to moderate pain – for example, headaches, sprains, or toothache
  • control a fever (high temperature, also known as pyrexia) – for example, when someone has the flu (influenza)
Link to the NHS Epidural anaesthesia website

NHS: Epidural anaesthesia

Epidural anaesthesia, often referred to as "an epidural", is an injection in the lower back that numbs the nerves and stops you feeling pain.

Link to The Pain Relief Foundation website

The Pain Relief Foundation

The Pain Relief Foundation was established as a registered charity in 1979, in response to the need for specialised research into the causes and treatment of chronic pain in humans.

Link to the Back Care website

Back Care

BackCare aims to significantly reduce the burden of back pain by providing information and education to all people and organisations affected by back pain and to fund scientific research into the causes, prevention and management of back pain.

Link to The British Pain Society website

The British Pain Society

The British Pain Society has a membership of over 1,400 and is involved in all aspects of pain and its management through the work of the Council, Committees and Working Parties.



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